In 1187 the Siege of Jerusalem took place.
Salah ad-Din, known as Saladin, led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant.
Levant stretched on the territories of present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and part of Turkey.
Saladin captured Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule.
The people captured by Saladin’s army in Jerusalem, were allowed to buy their freedom by paying gold coins. Those that could not pay were sold into slavery.
Latin Christians responded in 1189, by launching the Third Crusade.
In 1535, Jacques Cartier, discovered the present site of Montréal.
The island of Montréal is five times larger than Manhattan.
A tunnel and fifteen bridges link the island, where Montreal is built, to the mainland.
The city is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city.
Montreal is known for its Underground City, which is a series of interconnected tunnels beneath, stretching on over 32 km.
Before Google became so common, that we turned it into a verb, three computer science students created a searchable database called Archie.
It paved the way for the web search engines we’re so familiar with today.
The province of Quebec, where Montréal is based, produces and exports more than 85% of the world’s maple syrup.
In 1928, The Opus Dei was founded by a Catholic priest.
The name comes from a vision in which he allegedly saw written : “Opus Dei” , which in Latin means “Work of God”.
As per their own scope, Opus Dei, proposes to help ordinary citizens to lead a fully Christian life, without modifying their normal way of life, their daily work, their aspirations and ambitions.
In 1958, Guinea declared its independence from France.
Guinea is richly endowed with minerals.
It possesses, an estimated quarter of the world’s proven reserves of bauxite – which is used for the production of aluminium.
In 2000, The Rijndael algorithm is chosen as the Advanced Encryption Standard.
This cipher algorithm was developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen.
At its most basic level, encryption allows us to encode information so that only those who know the encrypting key can decrypt the data.
Without the key, it looks like random letters and symbols. With the key, the jumble of seemingly random text turns back into its original message.
The earliest types of encryption were simple, using techniques like changing each letter in a sentence to the one that comes after it in the alphabet.
As people got better at cracking codes, the encryption had to become more sophisticated.
You may be familiar with the Enigma machine and it’s importance.
The device was used to protect commercial and military communication.
It was employed extensively by Nazi Germany during World War II, in all branches of the German military.
Britain and its allies exploited Enigma-encoded messages sent by the Nazis, and used the information during the war.
Many historians consider that it shortened the war and may even have altered its outcome.
A E S, which uses the Rijndael algorithm, has been adopted by the U.S. government and is now used worldwide.
It is used in messaging apps like WhatsApp or archivers like WinZip.
When it comes to cyber security, A E S is one of those acronyms that you see popping up everywhere.
That’s because it has become the global standard of encryption and it is used to keep a significant amount of our communications safe.
Rijndael is basically a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.
Computers will always do what they need to do in terms of security, provided that you see the tiny lock that confirms your data is being encrypted.
But we should always remember that us, humans, are the weakest link in the Internet security chain, and we need to be extra cautious when using it.
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